• Thorough and significant studies
  • Trustworthy sources: leading institutions, recognized experts and peer-reviewed journal articles
  • As current as possible, conducted within at least the last five years
  • Appropriate sample size, random controls and generalizable data
  • Avoidance of biased sources, out of context reviews or selectively chosen data
  • Transparency about funding and affiliations
  • Considers compiled results of relevant meta-analyses
  • Recognizes limitations that require further study

What's Legal in California?

Arria, A. M., Caldeira, K. M., Bugbee, B. A., Vincent, K. B., & O’Grady, K. E. (2015). The academic consequences of marijuana use during college. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29(3), 564.

CBS News. “Juul CEO Tells Non-Smokers Not to Vape or Use His Company's Product.” CBS News, CBS Interactive, 29 Aug. 2019,

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Outbreak of Lung Illness Associated with Using E-cigarette Products." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Smoking & Tobacco Use, 6 Sept. 2019,

Gertson, L. (2016). What the Science Says About Adolescent Use of Cannabis. Ventura County Behavioral Health.

Jackson, N. J., Isen, J. D., Khoddam, R., Irons, D., Tuvblad, C., Iacono, W. G., ... & Baker, L. A. (2016). Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(5), E500-E508.

Jacobus, J., & F Tapert, S. (2014). Effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 20(13), 2186-2193.

Jensen, R. P., Luo, W., Pankow, J. F., Strongin, R. M., & Peyton, D. H. (2015). Hidden formaldehyde in e-cigarette aerosols. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(4), 392-394.

Join Together. Marijuana Edibles Linked to Two Deaths, Increased ER Visits in Colorado. Partnership for Drug-Free Kids. N.p., 24 Apr. 2014. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

Kim, Howard S., et al. (2015). Cyclic vomiting presentations following marijuana liberalization in Colorado. Academic Emergency Medicine 22.6 (2015): 694-699.

Kowitt SD, Osman A, Meernik C, et al., Vaping cannabis among adolescents: prevalence and associations with tobacco use from a cross-sectional study in the USA. BMJ Open 2019;9:e028535. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028535

Learn About Marijuana WA. Factsheets: Potency of Cannabis. Alcohol & Drug Abuse Institute, University of Washington, n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

Lisdahl, Krista M., Natasha E. Wright, Christopher Medina-Kirchner, Kristin E. Maple, and Skyler Shollenbarger. Considering Cannabis: The Effects of Regular Cannabis Use on Neurocognition in Adolescents and Young Adults. Current Addiction Reports 1.2 (2014): 144-56. Web.

Marijuana's Impact on California. (2016). California High Intensity Drug Trafficking Report. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

McCaffrey, D. F., Liccardo Pacula, R., Han, B., & Ellickson, P. (2010). Marijuana use and high school dropout: the influence of unobservables. Health Economics, 19(11), 1281-1299.

Meier, M. H., Caspi, A., Ambler, A., Harrington, H., Houts, R., Keefe, R. S., ... & Moffitt, T. E. (2012). Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(40), E2657-E2664.

MPI (2016). Warning: Marijuana/Cannabis Food Products. Marijuana Prevention Initiative San Diego County. MPI San Diego. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, 17 Dec. 2018, Accessed 30 Aug. 2019.

National Institute on Drug Abuse Blog Team. Marijuana “Edibles” Make Candy Complicated. Retrieved from on November 22, 2016.

National Institute on Drug Abuse; National Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human ServicesMonitoring the Future 2019 Survey Results: Vaping. Retrieved from on January 20, 2020.

NIDA. (2018) Electronic Cigarettes (E-cigarettes). Retrieved from

NIDA (2016). Regular Marijuana Use Is Associated With Differences in Brain Gray Matter and Connectivity. Retrieved October 10, 2016, from

NIDA (2016). Is Dabbing Dangerous? Retrieved November 23, 2016 from

Olmedo, Pablo, et al. (2018). Metal Concentrations in e-Cigarette Liquid and Aerosol Samples: The Contribution of Metallic Coils. Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 126, no. 2, 2018, p. 027010, doi:10.1289/ehp2175.

Rollins, J. A. (2014). Pot for tots: Children and medical marijuana. Pediatric Nursing, 40(2), 59-60.

Silins, E., Horwood, L. J., Patton, G. C., Fergusson, D. M., Olsson, C. A., Hutchinson, D. M., ... & Coffey, C. (2014). Young adult sequelae of adolescent cannabis use: an integrative analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry, 1(4), 286-293.

Tamm, L., Epstein, J. N., Lisdahl, K. M., Molina, B., Tapert, S., Hinshaw, S. P., ... & Group, M. N. (2013). Impact of ADHD and cannabis use on executive functioning in young adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133(2), 607-614.

Tapert, S. F., Schweinsburg, A. D., & Brown, S. A. (2008). The influence of marijuana use on neurocognitive functioning in adolescents. Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 1(1), 99-111.

Trivers, Katrina F., et al. (2018). Prevalence of Cannabis Use in Electronic Cigarettes Among US Youth. JAMA Pediatrics, vol. 172, no. 11, 2018, p. 1097, doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.1920.

Ventura County, CA (2014). Marijuana in Ventura County: A Gateway for Discussion. Second edition. Ventura County Behavioral Health.

Wang, George Sam, et al. (2016). Unintentional pediatric exposures to marijuana in Colorado, 2009-2015. JAMA Pediatrics 170.9 (2016): e160971-e160971.

Zwerling C, Ryan J, Orav E. The efficacy of preemployment drug screening for marijuana and cocaine in predicting employment outcome. JAMA. 1990;264(20):2639-2643.